Date of Award


Publication Type

Master Thesis

Degree Name



Civil and Environmental Engineering


Demand-Driven Analysis; Efficiency; EPANET; Hydraulic; Pressure Driven Analysis; Water Distribution System


Carriveau, Rupp


Ting, David




The hydraulic analysis of water distribution systems (WDS) can be analyzed by two main approaches: demand-driven analysis (DDA) and pressure-driven analysis (PDA). The DDA works well under normal operating conditions, while the PDA produces reliable results under partially failed conditions of a network. Comparisons are carried out by semi-pressure driven analysis (SPDA), Emitter normal pressure driven analysis (ENPDA), Emitter UNESCO pressure driven analysis (EUPDA) and the DDA. The verification is carried out by one of the most commonly used hydraulic modelling software developed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, EPANET. Applying EPANET demonstrates that unrealistic results from an initial DDA, in the form of pressure deficiencies, could be transformed into the partial fulfillment of nodal demands without losing computational efficiency by PDA methods. The fixed demands of the hydraulic engine in EPANET software is not suitable for analysis of WDS with low pressure. ENPDA is one of the PDA approaches and depends on an emmiter equation which is built-in EPANET software. Another approach of PDA is carried out by the modifications of EPANET (EUPDA) for pressure impact in DDA employing emitter modelling of demands. The EUPDA proposed version can work in a fully transparent way with standard EPANET network files. The verification was carried out to select the most convenient approach for the reliability analysis. The results of the selected PDA modelling approach will be utilized to apply a Middle Eastern solution by adding the elevated tank. Smart enhancement solutions can eliminate the impacts of burst pipelines and/or the effects of firefighting.