Date of Award


Publication Type

Master Thesis

Degree Name




First Advisor

Fox, Susan


effect moderation; hand hygiene adherence; interaction effects; moderating effects; nursing students; physicians




Although a multitude of factors affecting hand hygiene (HH) adherence have been investigated in the literature, limited research has specifically explored the moderating/ interaction effects among these factors. A secondary analysis of pooled self-reported HH adherence data, collected for two previous Canadian studies, was conducted to explore the presence of such interaction effects. Within a combined sample of 465 physician and nursing student participants, 67.1% were deemed adherent, with self-reported performance of HH before and after every patient contact at a minimum of 90% of the time. Gender was found to moderate the relationship between forgetfulness and HH adherence within the merged dataset. Perceived forgetfulness significantly decreased HH adherence among male respondents only. In addition, perceived busyness was found to moderate the relationship between forgetfulness and HH adherence among nursing students. Forgetfulness decreased HH adherence, but only for those nursing students who did not perceive busyness as a factor impacting their HH adherence. The study findings highlight the need to explore moderation/interaction effects to enrich our understanding of factors affecting HH, enabling more effective, targeted interventions to improve adherence.