Date of Award


Publication Type

Master Thesis

Degree Name



Electrical and Computer Engineering

First Advisor

Miller, W. C.,


Engineering, Electronics and Electrical.



Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.


This thesis develops the design methodology for a low-voltage low-power SigmaDelta Modulator, realized using a switched op-amp technique that can be used in a hearing instrument. Switched op-amp implementation allows scaling down the design to the latest CMOS technology. A single-loop second-order SigmaDelta Modulator topology is chosen. The modulator circuit features reduced complexity, area reduction and low conversion energy. The modulator has a sampling rate of 8.2 MHz with an over-sampling ratio (OSR) of 256 to provide an audio bandwidth of 16 kHz. The modulator is implemented in a 0.18 mum digital CMOS technology with metal-to-metal sandwich structure capacitors. The modulator operates with a supply voltage of 1.8 V. The active area is 0.403 mm2. The modulator achieves a 98 dB signal-to-noise-and-distortion ratio (SNDR) and a 100 dB dynamic range (DR) at a Nyquist conversion rate of 32 kHz and consumes 1321 muW with a joule/conversion figure of merit equal to 161 x 10-12 J/s. The design methodology is developed through the extensive use of simulation tools. The behaviour simulation is carried out using Matlab/SIMULINK while circuits are simulated with Hspice using the Cadence design tools. Full-custom layout for the analog and the digital circuits is performed using the Cadence design tool. Post-processing simulation of the extracted modulator with parasitic verifies that results meet the requirements. The design has been sent to CMC for fabrication. Source: Masters Abstracts International, Volume: 43-03, page: 0947. Adviser: W. C. Miller. Thesis (M.A.Sc.)--University of Windsor (Canada), 2004.