Date of Award


Publication Type

Master Thesis

Degree Name



Electrical and Computer Engineering


Binary extension field, Finite field multiplier, Karatsuba algorithm, Parallel multiplication, Subquadratic space complexity


Wu, Huapeng




Bit-parallel multiplication in GF(2^n) with subquadratic space complexity has been explored in recent years due to its lower area cost compared with traditional parallel multiplications. Based on 'divide and conquer' technique, several algorithms have been proposed to build subquadratic space complexity multipliers. Among them, Karatsuba algorithm and its generalizations are most often used to construct multiplication architectures with significantly improved efficiency. However, recursively using one type of Karatsuba formula may not result in an optimal structure for many finite fields. It has been shown that improvements on multiplier complexity can be achieved by using a combination of several methods. After completion of a detailed study of existing subquadratic multipliers, this thesis has proposed a new algorithm to find the best combination of selected methods through comprehensive search for constructing polynomial multiplication over GF(2^n). Using this algorithm, ameliorated architectures with shortened critical path or reduced gates cost will be obtained for the given value of n, where n is in the range of [126, 600] reflecting the key size for current cryptographic applications. With different input constraints the proposed algorithm can also yield subquadratic space multiplier architectures optimized for trade-offs between space and time. Optimized multiplication architectures over NIST recommended fields generated from the proposed algorithm are presented and analyzed in detail. Compared with existing works with subquadratic space complexity, the proposed architectures are highly modular and have improved efficiency on space or time complexity. Finally generalization of the proposed algorithm to be suitable for much larger size of fields discussed.