Date of Award

2018

Degree Type

Dissertation

Degree Name

Ph.D.

Department

Computer Science

First Advisor

Luis Rueda

Keywords

Breast Cancer, Cancer Progression, Machine Learning, Prostate Cancer, RNA-Seq, Survivability

Abstract

In addition, we propose many machine learning models that serve as contributions to solve a biological problem. First, we present Zseq, a linear time method that identifies the most informative genomic sequences and reduces the number of biased sequences, sequence duplications, and ambiguous nucleotides. Zseq finds the complexity of the sequences by counting the number of unique k-mers in each sequence as its corresponding score and also takes into the account other factors, such as ambiguous nucleotides or high GC-content percentage in k-mers. Based on a z-score threshold, Zseq sweeps through the sequences again and filters those with a z-score less than the user-defined threshold. Zseq is able to provide a better mapping rate; it reduces the number of ambiguous bases significantly in comparison with other methods. Evaluation of the filtered reads has been conducted by aligning the reads and assembling the transcripts using the reference genome as well as de novo assembly. The assembled transcripts show a better discriminative ability to separate cancer and normal samples in comparison with another state-of-the-art method. Studying the abundance of select mRNA species throughout prostate cancer progression may provide some insight into the molecular mechanisms that advance the disease. In the second contribution of this dissertation, we reveal that the combination of proper clustering, distance function and Index validation for clusters are suitable in identifying outlier transcripts, which show different trending than the majority of the transcripts, the trending of the transcript is the abundance throughout different stages of prostate cancer. We compare this model with standard hierarchical time-series clustering method based on Euclidean distance. Using time-series profile hierarchical clustering methods, we identified stage-specific mRNA species termed outlier transcripts that exhibit unique trending patterns as compared to most other transcripts during disease progression. This method is able to identify those outliers rather than finding patterns among the trending transcripts compared to the hierarchical clustering method based on Euclidean distance. A wet-lab experiment on a biomarker (CAM2G gene) confirmed the result of the computational model. Genes related to these outlier transcripts were found to be strongly associated with cancer, and in particular, prostate cancer. Further investigation of these outlier transcripts in prostate cancer may identify them as potential stage-specific biomarkers that can predict the progression of the disease. Breast cancer, on the other hand, is a widespread type of cancer in females and accounts for a lot of cancer cases and deaths in the world. Identifying the subtype of breast cancer plays a crucial role in selecting the best treatment. In the third contribution, we propose an optimized hierarchical classification model that is used to predict the breast cancer subtype. Suitable filter feature selection methods and new hybrid feature selection methods are utilized to find discriminative genes. Our proposed model achieves 100% accuracy for predicting the breast cancer subtypes using the same or even fewer genes. Studying breast cancer survivability among different patients who received various treatments may help understand the relationship between the survivability and treatment therapy based on gene expression. In the fourth contribution, we have built a classifier system that predicts whether a given breast cancer patient who underwent some form of treatment, which is either hormone therapy, radiotherapy, or surgery will survive beyond five years after the treatment therapy. Our classifier is a tree-based hierarchical approach that partitions breast cancer patients based on survivability classes; each node in the tree is associated with a treatment therapy and finds a predictive subset of genes that can best predict whether a given patient will survive after that particular treatment. We applied our tree-based method to a gene expression dataset that consists of 347 treated breast cancer patients and identified potential biomarker subsets with prediction accuracies ranging from 80.9% to 100%. We have further investigated the roles of many biomarkers through the literature. Studying gene expression through various time intervals of breast cancer survival may provide insights into the recovery of the patients. Discovery of gene indicators can be a crucial step in predicting survivability and handling of breast cancer patients. In the fifth contribution, we propose a hierarchical clustering method to separate dissimilar groups of genes in time-series data as outliers. These isolated outliers, genes that trend differently from other genes, can serve as potential biomarkers of breast cancer survivability. In the last contribution, we introduce a method that uses machine learning techniques to identify transcripts that correlate with prostate cancer development and progression. We have isolated transcripts that have the potential to serve as prognostic indicators and may have significant value in guiding treatment decisions. Our study also supports PTGFR, NREP, scaRNA22, DOCK9, FLVCR2, IK2F3, USP13, and CLASP1 as potential biomarkers to predict prostate cancer progression, especially between stage II and subsequent stages of the disease.

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