Date of Award


Publication Type

Doctoral Thesis

Degree Name



Electrical and Computer Engineering

First Advisor

Kar, N.C.

Second Advisor

Tjong, J.


Electric Vehicle, Fractional Slot Winding, Integrated Charging, Interior PMSM, Machine Design, Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine




Permanent magnet synchronous machines (PMSMs) are widely implemented commercially available traction motors owing to their high torque production capability and wide operating speed range. However, to achieve significant electric vehicle (EV) global market infiltration in the coming years, the technological gaps in the technical targets of the traction motor must be addressed towards further improvement of driving range per charge of the vehicle and reduced motor weight and cost. Thus, this thesis focuses on the design and development of a novel high speed traction PMSM with improved torque density, maximized efficiency, reduced torque ripple and increased driving range suitable for both traction and integrated charging applications. First, the required performance targets are determined using a drive cycle based vehicle dynamic model, existing literature and roadmaps for future EVs. An unconventional fractional–slot distributed winding configuration with a coil pitch of 2 is selected for analysis due to their short end–winding length, reduced winding losses and improved torque density. For the chosen baseline topology, a non–dominated sorting genetic algorithm based selection of optimal odd slot numbers is performed for higher torque production and reduced torque ripple. Further, for the selected odd slot–pole combination, a novel star–delta winding configuration is modeled and analyzed using winding function theory for higher torque density, reduced spatial harmonics, reduced torque ripple and machine losses. Thereafter, to analyze the motor performance with control and making critical decisions on inter–dependent design parameter variations for machine optimization, a parametric design approach using a novel coupled magnetic equivalent circuit model and thermal model incorporating current harmonics for fractional–slot wound PMSMs was developed and verified. The developed magnetic circuit model incorporates all machine non–linearities including effects of temperature and induced inverter harmonics as well as the space harmonics in the winding inductances of a fractional–slot winding configuration. Using the proposed model with a pareto ant colony optimization algorithm, an optimal rotor design is obtained to reduce the magnet utilization and obtain maximized torque density and extended operating range. Further, the developed machine structure is also analyzed and verified for integrated charging operation where the machine’s winding inductances are used as line inductors for charging the battery thereby eliminating the requirement of an on–board charger in the powertrain and hence resulting in reduced weight, cost and extended driving range. Finally, a scaled–down prototype of the proposed PMSM is developed and validated with experimental results in terms of machine inductances, torque ripple, torque–power–speed curves and efficiency maps over the operating speed range. Subsequently, understanding the capabilities and challenges of the developed scaled–down prototype, a full–scale design with commercial traction level ratings, will be developed and analyzed using finite element analysis. Further recommendations for design improvement, future work and analysis will also be summarized towards the end of the dissertation.