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In two-tiered sensor networks, using higher-powered relay nodes as cluster heads has been shown to lead to further improvements in network performance. Placement of such relay nodes focuses on achieving specified coverage and connectivity requirements with as few relay nodes as possible. Existing placement strategies typically are unaware of energy dissipation due to routing and are not capable of optimizing the routing scheme and placement concurrently.
We, in this thesis, propose an integrated integer linear program (ILP) formulation that determines the minimum number of relay nodes, along with their locations and a suitable communication strategy such that the network has a guaranteed lifetime as well as ensuring the pre-specified level of coverage (ks) and connectivity (kr). We also present an intersection based approach for creating the initial set of potential relay node positions, which are used by our ILP, and evaluate its performance under different conditions. Experimental results on networks with hundreds of sensor nodes show that our approach leads to significant improvement over existing energy-unaware placement schemes.
Xu, Yufei, "Integrated placement and routing of relay nodes for fault-tolerant hierarchical sensor networks" (2009). Electronic Theses and Dissertations. 8071.