Date of Award


Publication Type

Master Thesis

Degree Name



Electrical and Computer Engineering


consensus algorithm, distributed generator, electric vehicle charging station, sensitivity analysis, voltage regulation


Maher Azzouz




The developments of distributed generators (DGs) and electric vehicles (EVs) are dramatical due to the rapid increase of friendly environment desire. While on another hand, the proliferation of distributed generators (DGs) and electric vehicle charging stations (EVCSs) has brought voltage regulation challenges to distribution systems due to their high generations and heavy loads. In this thesis, a distributed control strategy is proposed which mainly consisted by a reactive compensation algorithm to dispatch surplus reactive power from DGs and EVCSs for proper voltage regulation without violating their converters’ capacity limits or stressing conventional voltage control devices, i.e., on-load tap changers (OLTCs), and an active power curtailment algorithm for DGs to properly integrate OLTC in voltage regulation when the reactive power compensation is deficient. The proposed control algorithms rely on consensus theory and sensitivity analysis, thus, minimizing the active and reactive powers needed for voltage support, and decreasing the net cost of voltage regulation. In the proposed control strategy, three distributed voltage regulation algorithms, as well as a distributed control method for OLTC, are developed and coordinated to realize adequate voltage maintaining effects. Simulation results of a typical distribution system confirm the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed distributed control strategy in continuously maintaining proper voltage regulation for the whole distribution system with minimum power demands from DGs and EVCSs, and reduced tap operation for OLTC, within every 24 hours.