Date of Award


Publication Type

Master Thesis

Degree Name



Computer Science

First Advisor

Sherif Saad


Blockchain, Fair-Exchange, Non-Repudiation, Peer-To-Peer, Personal Health Records




In today’s digital world, it is common to exchange sensitive data between different parties. There are many examples of sensitive data or documents that require a digital exchange, such as banking information, insurance data, health records. In many cases, the exchange exists between unknown and untrusted parties. Therefore, it is essential to execute the data exchange over a fair non-repudiation protocol. In digital communication, non-repudiation is undeniable evidence of one’s responsibility regarding the validity of any data he shares/receives. Usually, this is achieved by the use of a cryptographic digital signature. In this case, the parties cannot deny the authenticity of their digital signature. The protocol satisfies the fairness property if and only if it does not give the sender any advantages over the receiver or vice versa, at any step during the exchange process. Combining fair exchange and non-repudiation for digital exchange is critical in many applications and can be acquired with or without the involvement of any trusted third party (TTP). However, without the involvement of TTP, fairness becomes probabilistic, and the involvement of TTP can cause significant dependency on the third party. Therefore, a peer-to-peer (P2P) (aka offline) fair non-repudiation protocol that does not require a trusted third-party is desirable in many applications. Blockchain is designed in such a way that the network can handle the trustless environment and deliver the correct result. Thus, if the exchanges are done leveraging Blockchain, it will ensure true fairness, and at the same time, none of the participants have to deal with the trust issue. In this thesis we propose a P2P fair non-repudiation data exchange scheme by leveraging Blockchain and distributed ledger technology. The scheme combines on-chain and off-chain communication patterns to enable the exchange of personal health records between patients and healthcare providers. We provide an informal reasoning of the proposed scheme. Moreover, we propose a design and implementation agnostic to existing Blockchain platforms to enable unbiased evaluation of the proposed scheme. Finally, we make a comparative analysis of the result derived from our approach with the existing one.