Date of Award


Publication Type

Master Thesis

Degree Name




First Advisor

Todd M. Loughead


Athlete Leadership, Athlete Satisfaction, Cohesion, Group Dynamics, Sport Psychology




The frequency and the effectiveness of leadership behaviours have been used interchangeably by researchers using the Leadership Scale for Sports (LSS; Chelladurai & Saleh, 1980) and/or Differentiated Transformational Leadership Inventory (DTLI; Callow, Smith, Hardy, Arthur, & Hardy, 2009). The primary purpose of the present study was to determine if athletes perceive differences between the frequency and effectiveness of athlete leadership behaviours. The secondary purpose was to examine the relationships between the frequency and the effectiveness of athlete leadership behaviours, cohesion, and athlete satisfaction. The sample was 80 intercollegiate varsity athletes (34 females, 46 males) from the University of Windsor. The LSS and DTLI were administered containing response formats for both frequency and effectiveness. An overall single group repeated measures MANOVA revealed a significant multivariate effect for response format, Pillai’s trace = .139, F(1,11) = 9.38, p < .01, η2 = .14, indicating that an athlete leaders’ leadership behaviours significantly differed based on the perceptions of frequency and effectiveness. The within-subject effect of response format indicated a significant difference, F(1,58) = 3.43, p < .01, η2 = .14. Post hoc ANOVAs revealed that the frequency of athlete leadership behaviours were greater for fostering acceptance of group goals and promoting teamwork, F(1,144) = 4.03, p < .05, η2 = .03; and high performance expectations, F(1,144) = 7.09, p = .01, η2 = .05, compared to the effectiveness of these two leadership behaviours. In addition, multiple regressions indicated that the effectiveness of athlete leadership behaviours significantly predicted both dimensions of task cohesion, along with the task and social dimensions of athlete satisfaction.