Date of Award


Publication Type

Master Thesis

Degree Name



Electrical and Computer Engineering


Indoor Localization, Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU), Interactive Multiple Model(IMM), Kalman Filter(KF), Zero-Velocity Updates (ZUPTs)


Balakumar Balasingam




This dissertation introduces a positioning system for measuring and tracking the momentary location of a pedestrian, regardless of the environmental variations. This report proposed a 6-DOF (degrees of freedom) foot-mounted miniature inertial sensor for indoor localization which has been tested with simulated and real-world data. To estimate the orientation, velocity and position of a pedestrian we describe and implement a Kalman filter (KF) based framework, a zero-velocity updates (ZUPTs) methodology, as well as, a zero-velocity (ZV) detection algorithm. The novel approach presented in this dissertation uses the interactive multiple model (IMM) filter in order to determine the exact state of pedestrian with changing dynamics. This work evaluates the performance of the proposed method in two different ways: At first a vehicle traveling in a straight line is simulated using commonly used kinematic motion models in the area of tracking (constant velocity (CV), constant acceleration (CA) and coordinated turn (CT) models) which demonstrates accurate state estimation of targets with changing dynamics is achieved through the use of multiple model filter models. We conclude by proposing an interactive multiple model estimator based adaptive indoor pedestrian tracking system for handling dynamic motion which can incorporate different motion types (walking, running, sprinting and ladder climbing) whose threshold is determined individually and IMM adjusts itself adaptively to correct the change in motion models. Results indicate that the overall IMM performance will at all times be similar to the best individual filter model within the IMM.