Date of Award


Publication Type

Master Thesis

Degree Name





Able-bodied athletes, Athletes with a disability, Concurrent validity, Psychological skills, TOPS-2


Krista J. Chandler




Many para-athletes competing at the elite level currently have access to a mental performance consultant. However, the same opportunities are not always available for para-athletes at the amateur level (Dieffenbach & Statler, 2012). As such, an online psychological skills training (PST) program is being developed as a means to provide all para-athletes equal accessibility to PST. In order to examine the effectiveness of the online PST program, sound measurement tools are necessary. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to assess the concurrent validity of a PST questionnaire. This was accomplished by showing that able-bodied and athletes with a disability do not differ on their use of mental skills in both practice and competition using the modified Test of Performance Strategies-2 (TOPS-2). Participants included 34 athletes with a disability and 82 able-bodied athletes. A significant one-way multivariate analysis of variance (F(15,100) = 2.265, p < .05; Pillai’s Trace =.254; partial η2 = .254) was found. Follow up one-way analysis of variance revealed that there were no significant differences between the two groups of athletes on their use of psychological skills in practice and competition. Therefore, the modified TOPS-2 was found to be an effective measure of psychological skills for both able-bodied athletes and athletes with a disability, demonstrating the potential usefulness not only when measuring athletes with a disability alone, but in studies with mixed groups.