Date of Award


Publication Type

Master Thesis

Degree Name



Civil and Environmental Engineering

First Advisor

Rajeev Ruparathna


BIM, green building, LEED construction, risk assessment, safety management, sustainable construction




Green buildings have been gaining popularity in the construction industry due to their low impact on the environment. Green buildings are aimed at creating energy-efficient, healthy, and environment-friendly buildings. However, OSHA records show that about 48% more accidents occur in green building construction as compared to traditional construction methods. Compromising the workers' health and safety questions the "true sustainability" of the building. Green buildings have been a popular strategy in institutional sustainability agendas. Globally, LEED is the most popular green buildings rating system. Statistics show that an increasing number of construction projects intend to obtain the LEED certification in the next decade. However, elevated worker health and safety risks have been gradually becoming a concern while pursuing LEED credits. However, there exists a limited study comparing the safety hazards occurring in conventional construction practices and green construction practices.This research explores the major safety risks associated with LEED-certified building construction. Failure Mode Effect, Analysis (FMEA) is used to determine the safety risk associated with each LEED credit. LEED credits were ranked based on safety performance. Safety score and incremental cost of LEED credits were used to identify the optimal credit combination for LEED gold certification that reduces the safety risk and minimizes the cost. Bayesian Belief Networks (BBN) was used to analyze the impact of project factors on safety risk. This analysis identified how the risk level of LEED credits changes based on project parameters. Safety risks identified from FMEA and BBN were used to develop Building Information Modelling (BIM)-based solutions to improve worker safety. The outcomes of this research will address the challenges of LEED construction and inform the construction industry in enhancing the health and safety of construction workers with state-of-the-art technology