Date of Award


Publication Type

Doctoral Thesis

Degree Name




First Advisor

Hakim-Larson, J.


Psychology, Clinical.




Measures of intellectual functioning, academic achievement, and self-esteem were administered to a group of children and adolescents with moderate visual impairment (distance visual acuity from 20/70 up to, but not including, 20/200). Children with moderate visual impairment (ages 9 to 16) were divided according to the presence or absence of additional handicaps (i.e., hormonal imbalance, motor impairment, seizures). The measures included 5 subtests of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-III (WISC-III), 4 subtests of the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test (WIAT), the Word Attack subtest of the Woodcock Reading Mastery Tests-Revised, and the Piers-Harris Self-Concept for Children. Results were compared to the norms accumulated on the standardization sample for each measure. The overall intellectual level of the group with moderate visual impairment without other handicaps (MVI group) was within the average range. However, the overall mean academic score was significantly lower than the mean intellectual score for this group. Additionally, 48% of the MVI group obtained scores on one or more of the WIAT subtests that were significantly lower than expected from their WISC-III total score suggesting academic delays. In addition to SES, scores on Digit Span and Word Attack differentiated children with academic delays from those with no delays in the MVI group. However, both the intellectual and academic levels for the group with moderate visual impairment with other handicaps (MVI+ group) were in the borderline range. In the area of self-esteem, children in both groups reported feeling good about themselves. However, they did report lower levels of perceived peer acceptance compared to levels of perceived competence in other areas. For a substantial number of children, the presence of a visual impairment was a significant component of their life experience but their interests and concerns were generally similar to those of children with normal vision. In addition to increasing our knowledge about the population of concern, the present study elucidated further the impact of reduced vision on specific areas of functioning.Dept. of Psychology. Paper copy at Leddy Library: Theses & Major Papers - Basement, West Bldg. / Call Number: Thesis1996 .D64. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, Volume: 59-08, Section: B, page: 4459. Adviser: Julie Hakim-Larson. Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Windsor (Canada), 1997.