Date of Award


Publication Type


Degree Name



Industrial and Manufacturing Systems Engineering


Keyboard, Musculoskeletal disorders, Carpal tunnel syndrome, Developing WMSDs


E. Kim


F. Baki



Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


With the proliferation of computers in homes and workplaces, the keyboard has become an integral part of our daily lives, and it is difficult to imagine using a computer without one. Given the high prevalence of WMSDs among computer users and the growing global computer workforce, concerns exist about the escalation of computer related injury with Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) being one of the most reported WMSDs among office workers. The forceful and repetitive movements of the hand and wrist, prolonged use of the hand and wrist and a non-neutral or awkward wrist posture (where there is a migration from a neutral flexion/extension position) are some of the causes of CTS among office workers. If these known risks are not addressed appropriately, this injury will inhibit a person’s ability to perform work effectively. The purpose of this study is to determine the optimal range of keyboard angles for sitting and standing positions based on wrist posture, forearm muscle activities and user preference. Keyboard location in relation to user position and distance will be identified for both sitting and standing postures. 30 volunteers with an above 40wpm typing speed participated in this study with wrist posture, muscle activity, typing performance, distance to place keyboard and user preference as dependent variables were measured. A 2-way ANOVA for repeated measure was performed using the SPSS software for analyzing the results of the dependent variables. Results show that, although user prefer to use positive keyboard angle, the negatively tilted keyboard is more ergonomically friendly at both sitting and standing workstations as compared to the standard keyboard angle, reducing muscle activity and awkward wrist posture while maintaining performance. Findings from this study should provide a useful framework for ergonomics practice and policy evaluation, and we expect that an office workstation can be improved for workers to reduce their risk of developing WMSDs, specifically CTS, with an ergonomic desk for sitting and standing workstations, including a universally adjustable support attached to the desk for sitting and standing workstation.