Date of Award


Publication Type


Degree Name



Mechanical, Automotive, and Materials Engineering


Circular economy, Demanufacturing, Design guideline, End of life strategy, EV battery


B.A. Schuelke-Leech



Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


As per the latest records, the transportation sector is the second largest in energy consumption and plays a major role in air pollution and co2 emission. One solution to curb this pollution and release of hazardous gases is li-ion batteries by electrifying the vehicles. However, these batteries have one factor over here: once EV batteries reach 70-80% charge holding capacity, they are not good enough for traction in the vehicle. Therefore, replacing these batteries with a new ones is necessary. However, these discarded batteries have enough charge holding capacity, which can be used in secondary applications called second-life batteries. It is estimated that there will be 85 million electric vehicles on the road by 2030; given the high demand in the future, we cannot afford to discard these batteries as we cannot meet the demand with material alone. Therefore, we must think about more sustainable ways like reusing multiple applications.

This master’s thesis investigates the design guideline for initial design, which will aid in demanufacturing to facilitate disassembly and use the component in the other application as a second life application. It is achieved by an in-depth study of battery’s parts, their function, feature, design requirements, and constraints, benchmarked existing high voltage batteries to create a foundation of design guidelines and examine potential future model implementation, analyzed the current level of demanufacturability in existing batteries, provided additional design guideline to meet the demanufacturability, prioritized the design requirements and proposed an EV battery model that will cooperate with the ability to do demanufactured.