Date of Award

1-10-2024

Publication Type

Thesis

Degree Name

M.Sc.

Department

Chemistry and Biochemistry

Keywords

Extraction;HPLC;Lions Mane;Natural Product Chemistry;Reishi;Soxhlet

Supervisor

John Trant

Rights

info:eu-repo/semantics/embargoedAccess

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Abstract

Medicinal mushrooms, such as Hericium erinaceus (lion's mane) and Ganoderma lucidum (reishi), have a rich history of traditional use in natural remedies, garnering attention for their bioactive compounds and nutritional benefits. Renowned for being protein-rich and low in fat, these fungi exhibit antimicrobial, anti-tumor, antioxidant, anti-diabetic, and anti-hypercholesterolemic properties attributed to their diverse bioactive components, including polysaccharides, proteins, terpenes, sterols, vitamins, polyphenols, and fatty acids. This study aimed to optimize extraction techniques, comparing maceration, ultrasound-assisted maceration, and Soxhlet extraction on fresh and dried lion's mane and reishi mushrooms. Varying solvent polarities and extraction times revealed that 8-hour extractions with dried samples, particularly using methanol for Soxhlet extraction, yielded the highest mass recoveries. Maceration with water extraction for 72 hours produced optimal results with dried samples. Proximate analysis showcased lion's mane with 54% moisture, 7.4% ash, 11.02% fiber, 1.04% fat, 23.94% protein, 57.45% carbohydrate, and 312.72 kcal/100g total energy. Reishi exhibited 7.28% moisture, 0.76% ash, 4.38% fiber, 3.87% fat, 18.03% protein, 65.67% carbohydrate, and 355.44 kcal/100g total energy. Assays for protein concentration, β-glucan content, and antioxidant activity demonstrated higher soluble protein and β-glucan in lion's mane extracts, particularly with methanol and dried samples. Fresh samples, however, exhibited superior antioxidant abilities. Quantification via HPLC-DAD revealed the degradation of ergosterol to Vitamin D2 over time, with higher content in dried samples. Ganoderic acid A was absent in lion's mane but efficiently extracted with ethyl acetate in reishi. Polyphenol composition will be further investigated for accurate results. Fatty acid profiling using GC-FID, with oleic acid as a standard and olive oil as a positive control, provided additional insights. In conclusion, these analyses and extraction protocols offer valuable insights into the medicinal potential of lion's mane and reishi mushrooms. This knowledge paves the way for developing promising remedies for various ailments and diseases.

Available for download on Saturday, February 01, 2025

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