Date of Award


Publication Type


Degree Name





app-based intervention;concussion;mental health;mindfulness meditation;sports;varsity athletics


Carlin Miller



Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Purpose: This thesis aimed to examine the accessibility, use, and impacts of app-based mindfulness on the well-being of female university student-athletes. Method: Participants (N = 34) were recruited from various UWindsor sports teams, completed baseline and follow-up surveys, and were asked to meditate with an app for 12 weeks. Surveys queried demographics, concussion experiences, and self-reported mindfulness, stress, and burnout. The app provided stress and app use data. Multiple regression was used to assess predictors of meditation engagement and post-intervention stress. Results: The sample was small with predominantly full-time student-athletes who reported no recent concussions during the study. Eighteen athletes meditated with the app in a variety of cities and times of the day, but meditation was often brief and inconsistent. Concussion history, baseline mindfulness, and baseline stress significantly predicted meditation engagement (R2 = 0.26, F(3, 30) = 3.59, p < .05, f2 = 0.36), though after removing an outlying influential case, the model was no longer significant (R2 = 0.10, F(3, 29) = 1.07, p > .05, f2 = 0.11). In predicting post-intervention stress, a model comprised of baseline mindfulness and meditation engagement was significant (R2 = 0.35, F(2, 31) = 8.26, p < .01, f2 = 0.53), in which baseline mindfulness was a significant predictor (B = -0.39, SE = 0.12, t(31) = -3.29, p < .01). Conclusions: Overall, the results of this study depicted challenges, gaps, and benefits of app-based mindfulness. In addition, predictors of meditation engagement and post-intervention stress were examined to help inform future research, which demonstrated the importance of concussion history, baseline stress, and baseline mindfulness. Continued research on this app-based intervention is needed.

Included in

Psychology Commons