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Scientific Reports






Cyanobacteria bloom and the secondary metabolites released by the microorganism are extremely harmful to aquatic animals, yet study on their adverse effects in zoobenthos is rare. Corbicula fluminea widely distributed in freshwater environment with algal blooms. It is a typical filter feeding zoobenthos that may be affected by the secondary metabolites of cyanobacteria due to its high filtering rate. In this study, C. fluminea was exposed to Microcystis aeruginosa exudates (MaE) for 96 h, which was obtained from 5 × 105 cells/mL and 2.5 × 106 cells/mL exponential stage M. aeruginosa culture solution that represented cyanobacteria cell density needs environmental risk precaution control and emergent control, respectively. The responses of C. fluminea critical organs to MaE were analyzed and evaluated based on histopathological sections, antitoxicity biomarkers, and organ function biomarkers. The results showed that all the organs underwent structural disorders, cell vacuolization, apoptosis, and necrosis, and the damage levels increased as MaE concentration increased. The detoxification and antioxidant defense systems biomarkers in each organ response to MaE exposure differently and the level of reaction improved when MaE concentration increased. The siphon rate and acetylcholinesterase activity showed that the filtration function decreased significantly as the MaE concentration increased. Increased activity of glutathione S-transferase and amylase in the digestive gland indicate that it is the major detoxification organ of C. fluminea. Increased vitellogenin concentration and enlarged oocytes in the gonad indicate that MaE may have an estrogenic effect on C. fluminea. This study demonstrates that cyanobacteria threat benthic bivalves by inducing oxidative stress, inhibiting filtering feeding system, and disturbing digestion system and reproduction potential of C. fluminea.





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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.