Document Type


Publication Date


Publication Title

International Journal of Sustainable Engineering

First Page



Performance measurements, reverse logistics, agent-based simulation, cell phone remanufacturing/recycling

Last Page



Reverse logistics (RL) has been applied in many industries and sectors since its conception. Unlike forward logistics, retracing consumer goods from the point of consumption to the point of inception is not a well-studied process. It involves many uncertainties such as time, quality and quantity of returns. The returned products can be remanufactured, have parts harvested, or be disposed safely. It is important to implement these activities in a cost-effective manner. The aim of this research is to measure the performance of the RL enterprise with the help of an agent-based simulation model. The major entities in the RL network are considered as Agents that can act independently. There are several different agents: collector agent, sorting-cum-reuse agent, remanufacturing agent, recycler agent, supplier agent and distributor agent. The individual performances of the agents are measured and recommendations are given to improve their performance, leading to the enhancement of the total performance of the RL enterprise. The approach is applied to a case study involving cell phone remanufacturing.



Funding Reference Number

Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC) of Canada


This is the accepted version of an article published in the International Journal of Sustainable Engineering. It is also available at