Major Papers


private tutoring, parental involvement, socioeconomic status (SES), equity, Canada


Canada has recently seen an explosion in the tutoring industry, in large part due to four key factors: increased immigration from countries where tutoring is popular, the expansion of tutoring franchises from America, parents’ lack of confidence in Canada’s public education, and an excess number of teaching professionals who struggle to find work in a crowded education field. Though the tutoring industry has helped to stimulate the economy, improve student outcomes, and support the transition of immigrants, international students, and refugees, many have concerns that it will widen an already problematic education gap. Thus, to understand the nuances of this issue so as to propose direction for future research and policy, the current study conducted a comprehensive literature review. The results suggest that there are inconsistencies with the pedagogical approaches used by tutoring franchises and the qualifications of the tutors themselves, and in turn the effectiveness and efficiency of tutoring in general.

Primary Advisor

Christopher J. Greig

Program Reader

Bonnie Stewart

Degree Name

Master of Education



Document Type

Major Research Paper

Convocation Year