Major Papers

Author ORCID Identifier


CLD learners, challenges, second language education, ESL, evidence-based practices


This systematic literature review (SLR) examined Canadian and American peer-reviewed articles published in the past ten years (2009 – 2019) which pointed out the main challenges that affect culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) learners in their educational settings in Canada and United States. More specifically, it scrutinized the central theories that have been used to explain the main challenges that hinder the success of CLD learners in their educational settings in North American schools. Four key themes emerged in the analysis of fifteen peer-reviewed articles: A research-to-practice gap in the education of CLD learners; inappropriate referrals of CLD learners to special education classes; cultural mismatch and stereotypical assumptions about CLD learners; and the need of parental involvement in decision-making. Within these four main themes, research indicated that there is a research-to-practice gap due to a mutual distrust between teachers and researchers. This mutual distrust makes teachers less prone to utilize strategies that would help CLD learners in their educational settings and redefine social constructs about race and linguistic ability. In scrutinizing these four themes, this SLR provides a summary of multiple studies and pointed out some recommendation for future research.

Primary Advisor

Andrew Allen

Program Reader

Cam Cobb

Degree Name

Master of Education



Document Type

Major Research Paper

Convocation Year