Major Papers


willingness to communicate, international students


The present research paper employs a document analysis method to investigate the multifaceted dynamics that underlie the willingness to communicate (WTC) in a second language among international students. This paper reviewed and analyzed more than 65 studies in the past two decades on international students’ WTC in a second language in the country where they study. Utilizing a comprehensive review of these existing studies, this paper elucidates the pivotal role of various motivational, emotional, social, and belongingness factors in shaping international students' WTC experiences. Motivation is a key determinant of WTC in a second language, with findings indicating higher levels of motivation positively affect international students’ readiness to engage in second-language communication. Emotions, both positive and negative, are essential in the context of WTC in a second language among international students. Furthermore, the sense of belonging plays a significant role in fostering WTC in a second language in different ways. Finally, the findings reveal that supportive social networks, a culturally diverse environment, and engaging communication patterns can enhance WTC in a second language among international students. Recognizing these influences can aid educators, institutions, policymakers, and other stakeholders in fostering an academic and social environment conducive to the development of international students' language proficiency and cross-cultural communication skills.

Primary Advisor

Dr. Shijing Xu

Program Reader

Dr. Clayton Smith

Degree Name

Master of Education



Document Type

Major Research Paper

Convocation Year