Major Papers


ACF, Advocacy Coalition, Energy, Climate, Regulatory Board


The conflicting goals of sustaining the Canadian economy through energy and prioritizing climate action lead to diverse interest groups with varying views on policies advocating their positions to government. Despite energy's economic importance, climate change remains central for the Liberal government under Justin Trudeau. The management of pipeline proposals such as Transmountain, Northern Gateway, Energy East, Keystone Xl under this government showcased its balancing act between economic interests and environmental commitments. Applying the Advocacy Coalition Framework, this paper examines how governments and regulatory authorities modify the process for accepting or rejecting pipeline proposals, the evolution of interest groups in shaping their proposals, and the influence of this process on shaping their belief systems. The intersection involving the government, First Nations, environmentalists, provincial decisions, courts, media scrutiny, and the regulatory board's decision-making process explores the complex and contentious nature of approving major energy infrastructure projects, such as the Trans Mountain pipeline expansion.

Primary Advisor

L. Miljan

Program Reader

G. Callaghan

Degree Name

Master of Arts


Political Science

Document Type

Major Research Paper

Convocation Year