Physics of Fluids
Flow around an inclined circular cylinder at yaw angles of α = 0°, 30°, 45°, and 60° has been numerically studied using the delayed detached eddy simulation at a Reynolds number of 1.4 × 104. Periodic boundary conditions are utilized to minimize the end effect. The focus is to explore the effect of yaw angle on the flow structure and the spatial distribution of the cross-flow forces. For the normal flow case, the modulation of the span-wise averaged lift force coefficient is found to be related to the unstable shear layer. For the inclined cases, contours of the sectional lift force coefficient show that the local vortex shedding staggers in time along the axial span at the early stage of the simulation, when the flow approaches the cylinder. After the flow reaches the quasi-periodic state, the axial difference disappears for α > 45° but not for α = 30°. In particular, the axial difference of the sectional lift force coefficient results in a near-zero value of the span-wise averaged lift force coefficient. The transition from a two-dimensional flow to a three-dimensional one is not captured in the current simulation. However, wake visualization indicates a mitigation of von Kármán vortex shedding when the yaw angle is greater than 30°. Although the Strouhal number is well predicted by the Independence Principle (IP), other flow properties are less agreeable with the prediction by IP.
Wang, Ran; Cheng, Shaohong; and Ting, David S.K.. (2019). Effect of yaw angle on flow structure and cross-flow force around a circular cylinder. Physics of Fluids, 31 (1).