Author ORCID Identifier : Lorna de Witt : Roger Reka

Document Type


Publication Date


Publication Title

Ageing International







Concern about residential long-term care quality and safety is a critical issue in developed countries internationally, often fueled by media scandals exposing riveting accounts of resident-to-resident aggression/responsive behaviours. These scandals raise questions about standards of care set through long-term care regulation. Using a participatory action research approach and document analysis method, we analyzed incidents related to responsive behaviours documented in three types of public version inspection reports posted for 535 Ontario, Canada long-term care homes from 2016 through 2018. Creation of an Individual Home Data Collection and Analysis Tool facilitated data collation and descriptive statistical analysis of seven long-term care service areas in the province of Ontario. Results highlight several combined service areas differences between for-profit and not-for-profit home documentation related to responsive behaviours in (a) resident quality inspection means; (b) total complaint and critical incident proportions and means; (c) total enforcement actions proportions; and (d) enforcement penalties. We discovered that documented evidence of incidents related to responsive behaviours was instead represented by other sections of the legislation. The highest proportion of enforcement actions related to responsive behaviours involved no follow-up by inspectors and only four enforcement penalties over three years. Recommendations include revision of the inspection report judgement matrix tool to produce separate enforcement actions specific to responsive behaviours. We submit that attending to this will contribute to protecting long-term care residents from harm and improving their quality of care through more effective connection of long-term care regulation to responsive behaviour care management.

Figure 1.docx (26 kB)
Figure 2.docx (33 kB)
RevT1.docx (22 kB)
RT2.docx (18 kB)
RT3.docx (19 kB)
RT4.docx (15 kB)
RT5.docx (18 kB)

Available for download on Thursday, May 02, 2024

Included in

Nursing Commons