Document Type


Publication Title

Asian American Journal of Psychology

Publication Date

Spring 2015


biracial identity, cultural socialization, internalized oppression, psychological adjustment




Although the biracial population is expected to grow at astonishing rates in the upcoming decades across North America, rigorous quantitative psychological research on biracial identity is currently scarce. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to examine biracial identity profiles in a large sample of Asian-White biracial young adults (n=330, aged 18-30) living in the United States and Canada, as well as assess the interrelationships among biracial identity and psychological adjustment variables. Grounded in the expanded theoretical model of Multiracial Heritage Awareness and Personal Affiliation (M-HAPA:Choi-Misailidis, 2004) and its corresponding biracial identity measure, cluster analysis was conducted to evaluate participants’ ‘patterns’ or ’profiles’ of scores on biracial identity orientation subscales. Three unique biracial identity groups emerged: the Asian-White Integrated, the Asian Dominant, and the White Dominant groups. Between-groups differences on participants’ measures of cultural socialization, psychological distress, and internalized oppression were analyzed and compared. The Asian-White Integrated group reported more cultural socialization than the other 2 groups. Furthermore, Asian Dominant participants showed the highest levels of psychological distress, whereas White Dominant participants showed the highest levels of internalized oppression among all groups. The results lend empirical support to the study’s hypotheses and the M-HAPA model. Theoretical, conceptual, and methodological implications for future biracial identity research are discussed.


First published in Asian American Journal of Psychology 10.1037/aap0000022. Copyright American Psychological Association 2015.

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