Author ORCID Identifier : Ben C H Kuo

Document Type


Publication Title

International Journal for the Advancement of Counselling

Publication Date


First Page


Last Page



Multicultural counseling competence, Multicultural counselling training, Refugee, Practicum, Mixed-methods




Using a longitudinal mixed-methods research design, the present study examined the development of multicultural competence and skills among 14 doctoral-level clinical trainees across three cohort groups, through providing counseling and therapy to refugees within a multicultural psychotherapy practicum. The results show that trainees reported significant increases in all domains of the measures of multicultural counseling competencies and self-efficacy as they worked with refugee clients between pre- and post-practicum, with medium to large effect sizes. The results of the Multi-Level Model analysis of trainees’ coded, post-session qualitative journals further revealed that the trainees’ growth curve for developing multicultural counseling and therapy skills was characterized by a non-linear pattern. Finally, trainees’ qualitative journal narratives additionally highlighted profound and nuanced cognitive, affective, behavioral, and interpersonal learning impacts and gains through this refugee-servicing practicum. Implications and recommendations for future multicultural counseling training and research are considered.

Funding Reference Number

HSSRG 810050


This research was partially supported by the University of Windsor’s Internal Humanities and Social Sciences Research Grant (HSSRG 810050) awarded to the first author.

Available for download on Monday, July 03, 2119

Included in

Psychology Commons