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Diabetes Spectrum

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type 1 diabetes, emerging adults, psychosocial intervention, mental health, glycemic control

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Risk for developing mental health concerns is increased for people with diabetes. Coupled with stressors related to the transition from adolescence to adulthood, emergent adults may be in greater need of psychosocial interventions to help them cope. This review summarizes the literature on interventions used with people with diabetes aged 15–30 years on psychosocial and biological (A1C) outcomes. Core databases were searched for both published and grey research. Studies completed between January 1985 and October 2018 using any psychosocial intervention and meeting age and diabetes type requirements were selected if they included a control or comparison group and findings reported in such a way that effect size was calculable. Two authors independently extracted relevant data using standard data extraction templates. Six studies with 450 participants met the broad inclusion criteria. Sample-weighted pooling of 12 outcomes, six each on glycemic control and psychosocial status, suggested the preventive potential (d = 0.31, 95% CI 0.17–0.45) and homogeneity (χ2 [11] = 11.15, P = 0.43) of studied interventions. This preliminary meta-analysis provides some suggestion that psychosocial interventions, including telephone-based case management, individualized treatment modules, and small-group counseling interventions, may diminish burden, depression, and anxiety and enhance glycemic control among emerging adults with type 1 diabetes as they transition from adolescence to adulthood.



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