Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics
The linear-perpendicular-linear polarization gradient technique was used for investigating laser collimation of a gallium atomic beam in one dimension. The full angular divergence of the atomic beam was reduced to 0.3 mrad by operating on a particular electron transition at 294.45 nm. The transverse velocity of the atoms was reduced to 11 cm/s, which was about half of the Doppler cooling limit. The one-dimensional kinetic energy of atoms was reduced to 6 neV. The transition state exhibited optical pumping of the atoms by the cooling laser.
Rehse, Steven J.; Bockel, K.M.; and Lee, S.A.. (2004). Laser collimation of an atomic gallium beam. Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, 69 (6), 63404.