Prophylactic Effects of Ji-Sui-Kang in Paraquat-Induced Rat Models of Parkinson's Disease

Submitter and Co-author information

Melissa K. S. Macksoud, University of WindsorFollow

Type of Proposal

Oral presentation


Faculty of Science

Faculty Sponsor

Dr. Siyaram Pandey

Start Date

24-3-2015 1:00 PM

End Date

24-3-2015 1:50 PM

Importance of the Project

The primary symptoms of PD are related to movement and include tremors, bradykinesia, and akinesia. With the only therapeutic interventions available at this time focusing on symptom management, it is imperative that researchers look for treatments that can aid neuroprotection and proregeneration within the brain. With PD effecting approximately 1% of the population over 65 years of age and over 1 million people, the need for a neuroprotective therapeutic intervention is apparent.

Existing State of Knowledge

Anecdotal reports from Chinese Medicine Practitioners suggest Ji- Sui- Kang (JSK) can be used for treating both spinal cord injuries and PD. Recently, JSK has been determined to be a multifaceted and effective treatment for spinal cord injuries. JSK has been shown to cause reduction of tissue damage, inflammation, inhibitory signal transduction, and apoptosis at the site of the lesion. As a result, JSK permitted neuronal regeneration which was demonstrated by an increase of proteins expressed during axonal growth and regeneration. Our lab has already developed a environmental toxin model of Parkinson's disease. Additionally, we have tested the efficacy of a water-soluble formulation of CoQ10 in the treatment of Parkinson's disease.

Research Question

This project aims to test the efficacy of Ji-Sui-Kang as a neuroprotectant in the treatment of an environmental toxin-induced model of Parkinson's disease.


JSK will be administered prophylactically. Three groups of rats will be used: one group will receive JSK with a jello vehicle and paraquat, another will receive the vehicle and paraquat, and the control group will receive the vehicle and a saline injection.To induce Parkinson’s disease (PD) in the rats, 5 intraperitoneal injections of paraquat occurring on every fifth day for 20 days will be performed. The control rats will receive 5 saline injections on the same schedule.1 After sacrificing the rats, immunohistochemical analysis using an anti-tyrosine hydroxylase antibody (anti-TH) will be performed on coronal sections of the brain to locate the dopaminergic neurons. Tyrosine hydroxylase catalyzes the rate limiting reaction of catecholamine biosynthesis thus, this enzyme will be present in dopaminergic neurons.2 Using a stereologer, dopaminergic neurons will be counted. To ensure the loss dopaminergic neurons in the SNps coincide with motor deficits, a motor skill assessment will be performed for each rat via the horizontal beam-walking test. It is hypothesized that JSK act as a neuroprotective agent in PD rats. Therefore, it is hypothesized PD rats receiving treatment will have a greater number of dopaminergic neurons in SNpc region and less leg slips on the horizontal beam-walking test than rats receiving no treatment.

1. Muthukumaran, K., Leahy, S., Harrison, K., Sikorska, M., Sandhu, J. K., Cohen, J., Keshan, C., Lopatin, D., Miller, H., Borowy-Borowski, H., Lanthier, P., Weinstock, S., & Pandey, S. (2014). Orally delivered water soluble Coenzyme Q10 Ubisol-Q10) blocks on-going neurodegeneration in rats exposed to paraquat: potential for therapeutic application in Parkinson's disease. BMC Neuroscience, 15(1), 21.

2.Dziedzicka-Wasylewska, M. (2004). Brain dopamine receptors--research perspectives and potential sites of regulation. Polish Journal of Pharmacology, 56, 659-671.

Your Findings

No data yet. We may have preliminary results.


Mar 24th, 1:00 PM Mar 24th, 1:50 PM

Prophylactic Effects of Ji-Sui-Kang in Paraquat-Induced Rat Models of Parkinson's Disease